Ruby focuses on “human-language” programming, and its code reads like a verbal language rather than a machine-based one, which many programmers, both beginners and experts, like. Ruby follows the principle of “least astonishment,” and offers myriad ways to do the same thing. These similar methods can have multiple names, which many developers find confusing and frustrating.
Ruby makes use of “blocks,” a first-class object that is treated as a unit within a program. In fact, Ruby takes the concept of OOP (Object-Oriented Programming) to its limit. Everything is an object—even global variables are actually represented within the ObjectSpace object. Classes and modules are themselves objects, and functions and operators are methods of objects. This ability makes Ruby especially powerful, especially when combined with its other primary strength: functional programming and the use of lambdas.
In addition to blocks and functional programming, Ruby provides programmers with many other features, including fragmentation, hashable and unhashable types, and mutable strings.
Ruby’s fans find its elegance to be one of its top selling points. At the same time, Ruby’s “magical” features and flexibility can make it very hard to track down bugs.
Ruby’s community has focused primarily on web development from the get-go. It tends to innovate more quickly than the Python community, but this innovation also causes more things to break. In addition, while it has gotten more diverse, it has yet to reach the level of diversity that Python has.